Reference and Education

What Is Linguistic Competence?

Linguistic competence is only one of several components that make up language competence. These components work together so that an individual who possesses all of them to a reasonable level will be able to listen, speak, read and write effectively. Linguistic competence goes beyond knowing the rules of grammar and syntax; it is an internalized and tacit grasp of how words and sentences should be arranged and spoken. These components include: discourse competence, sociolinguistic competence, and grammatical or linguistic competence.


Discourse competence is focused on how well an individual can express himself or herself. Sociolinguistic competence refers to the ability to use language in a socially acceptable manner. Linguistic competence measures the ability of a person to apply rules of language.


Linguistic or grammatical competence means knowing and using the rules of a certain language. It also means having enough of a vocabulary to express what the speaker has in mind, being able to pronounce words well enough to be clearly understood, and knowing how to spell these words. Fortunately, you can now have virtual language classes right in the comfort of your own home.

Not all native speakers can lay claim to grammatical competence. In fact, in many cases native speakers or first language speakers, violate the rules of grammar and speak in a substandard form popularly known as slang. The grammatical correctness acquired by native speakers in childhood depends on exposure from their environment. This environment now no longer consists of the actual speech children hear from adults because mass media has a pervasive influence even inside homes.


Grammatical errors typically become accepted as part of everyday speech without questioning what linguistic correctness is. One example is the use of the word “less” in express counters telling customers the counter is only for “five items or less”. Since grocery items are “countable”, the correct word instead of less would be “fewer”. However, because everyone has become familiar with this usage, people have lost any innate reluctance to use the word.


The same thing goes for the use of the word “me” when answering the phone. Usually, people will say, “It’s me, Mary.” To answer the question “Who am I speaking to?” The correct pronoun would be “I” (It is I, Mary). However, more people would feel awkward using this pronoun because the use of “me” has become familiar.


Brilliant linguists like Noam Chomsky have proffered the theory about an inborn ability to discern and tacitly apply rules of grammar. However, there is no denying that today, the presence of multiple languages in any community, and constant exposure to media are leaving their mark on language acquisition. For competence to be obtained, a greater sensitivity to right grammar must be developed through exposure to standard and not substandard discourse.

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Things You Didn’t To Know About Business

Catering Business Promotion-It is critical that if you are scrutinizing and producing articles about your catering business that you concentrate equally on the functions where you have little knowledge, as you will do on the parts where you have greater competence. The confidence to confront yourself, and ask the problematic questions, is a substantial benefit for any small business owner. As you are getting ready to promote your company, and its goods and services, it is a crucial first step to make sure that you find out what your potential clients actually need, and specifically how your company will assist them.

All Catering Businesses should have exceedingly transparent goals which are to carry out the objectives of the businesses owner whilst making a profit. The main focus for any organisation is to supply goods and services that prospective buyers will want, at prices that must produce sufficient receipts to offset all of their spending and make a profit. All companies need to concentrate on producing a strong cash-flow and invest their money to the benefit of the business. Everything you do, and all that your new venture does, must concentrate on marketing your goods to your targeted buyers in a cost-effective way. What benefits do your goods and services offer and how will you ensure that your small businesses marketing, and subsequent advertising, focuses on positioning your message in front of potential clients?

When you develop decent articles about your small business, it is plainly wrong not to share them as extensively as you can. You can put your articles onto your organisations website and also forward them to other websites that provide e-zines or act as an online publisher. By submitting your wording to other websites you provide exposure, not only to your opinions, but also for your business and its merchandise, and you have the chance to stretch out and let everyone know precisely what it is that your company will be up to.

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An Analysis of Catering Business Plan

Over the past few years there has been enormous growth in the leisure market as functions such as weddings; sporting, fundraising and celebratory events have become more lavish with the use of outside caterers becoming the norm. In addition, changes within the workplace, such as the closure of canteen facilities, have led to a growth in opportunity for contract caterers to supply refreshments. Our love of dining and entertaining has created a tremendous market for caterers across the world. A wide range of social and business events are providing the opportunity for caterers to cook up tasty dishes and delicious profits. In fact, growth among social caterers has been one of the strongest in the overall food-service industry in recent years, and that trend is expected to continue.

Off-premises caterers – caterers who take the food to the customers, rather than a catering department operating on-site in a hotel or convention center – offer everything from a gourmet breakfast in bed for two to elegant dinners for 20 to charity galas for more than 1,000 people. Some caterers specialize in one kind of food-cakes and breads, for example–while others offer a wide range of services, including floral arrangements, specialized props and costumes for theme parties, and wedding coordination

Contracts are often awarded to large companies with a proven track record for contracts such as school dinners, hospital catering, air, rail and ferry travel, and it may, therefore, be difficult for anyone setting up a business to make inroads into this market. However, there are plenty of opportunities for smaller contracts and one-off celebratory functions. As such you should start your catering business to specialize in weddings, sporting, fundraising and celebratory events. By offering creative, colorful, and unusual food options which is a break from the normal catering options you can expect to generate new business in your new venture. By injecting new life into the catering market, leveraging your chefs’ culinary skills to develop creative new catering options your catering business will soon be in profit.

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February 2018
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